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Air dry moisture content (2A1)

This method is required to adjust soil chemical results based on air-dry samples to an oven-dry (105oC)
basis. When the air-dry moisture content (M%) is known, the correction from air-dry
to oven-dry is as follows:

 

            Oven-dry result  =   [Air-dry result  x  (100+ M%)]/100

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Nitrate Nitrogen (7C2)

Initially, milled air-dry soil is extracted for 1 h with 2M KCl at a 1:10 soil/solution ratio. For 7C1a to 7C1h methods, mineral-N components are quantified by steam distillations and subsequent titrations. For 7C2 methods, mineral-N fractions in the clarified soil extract are determined by automated colorimetric procedures. Ammonium ions (NH4+) are measured by a modified Berthelot indophenol reaction, while the Griess-Ilosvay reaction is used for NO3-N (and NO2-N). The methods specify reporting results for NH4-N and NO3-N [plus NO2-N if present], respectively, as mg N/kg on an oven-dry (105oC) basis. Specifically, method 7C2a relates to an automated colour, continuous segmented flow analytical finish, while Method 7C2b codes an automated colour finish by flow injection analysis. Little difference is expected in results due to choice of colorimetric finish.

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Bicarbonate Extractable Phosphorus - Colwell (9B1)

This popular Australian P test on milled air-dry sample is suitable for acidic, neutral and alkaline soils. The extractant is freshly prepared 0.5M sodium bicarbonate @ pH 8.5. The wide soil/extractant ratio of 1:100 and an extended shaking time of 16 h favours readily available and more slowly available forms of soil P, while suppressing the solubility of basic calcium phosphates often found in neutral and alkaline soils. Method 9B1 describes a manual, molybdenum-blue colorimetric procedure with a preferred absorbance at 882 nm, whereas Method 9B2 refers to the same initial soil extraction, followed by an equivalent automated molybdenum-blue colorimetric finish (continuous segmented flow or flow injection analysis). The methods specify reporting results as mg P/kg on an air-dry basis.

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Electrical conductivity (EC) of 1:5 soil/water extract (3A1)

This test on milled air-dry sample at a soil/water ratio of 1:5 for 1 h is suitable for use on all soils, irrespective of whether acidic or alkaline. It usually underestimates the soluble salt status of soils containing natural or added gypsum, particularly if ³ 1% of gypsum is present. Such soils would have an EC of about 2 dS/m. Soil EC x 0.336 (Method 3B1) approximates percent total soluble salts, while approximate soil ionic strength (Method 3C1) at 0.1 bar (I0.1) can be calculated as follows: I0.1 = [0.0446*EC1:5 – 0.000173], where I0.1 has units of mM, and EC1:5 has units of dS/m @ 25oC.

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Exchangeable Bases - Ammonium Acetate (15D3)

 

Exchangeable bases - 1M ammonium acetate at pH 7.0.

 

This rapid method for exchangeable cations in non-saline acidic through to slightly alkaline soils has no pre-treatment for soluble salts. It should yield similar data to those of method 15A1, except it can overestimate exchangeable Ca in soils containing calcium carbonate.

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DTPA Trace Elements (12A1)

Soils are extracted with 0.005M DTPA, at a 1:2 soil:solution ratio, and shaken for 2 hr at 25oC.  Analytical finish is either ICP-AES or Flame AAS.

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KCl-ext.S (10D1)

Empirical extraction at 40oC in 0.25M KCl, for 3 hours.  Total S in the extract is measured by ICP-AES.

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pH: 1:5 SOIL:0.01M CaCL2 Suspension (4B2)

This pH test on milled air-dry sample is suitable for use on all soils, irrespective of whether acidic or alkaline. Values are usually unaffected by fertilisation prior to sampling, as changes to the soil’s ionic strength is masked by the calcium chloride. Code 4B1 indicates direct use of 0.01M CaCl2, at a soil/solution ratio of 1:5, with mechanical shaking for 1 h prior to pH measurement using calibrated electrodes positioned in the unstirred supernatant after settling of the suspension. Code 4B2 provides a similar measurement outcome but relies on the addition of 0.21M CaCl2 to a 1:5 soil/water suspension to achieve 0.01M CaCl2 prior to measurement of pH as for 4B1.

Codes 4B3 and 4B4 are identical to 4B1 and 4B2, respectively, except the soil/CaCl2 suspensions are stirred during measurement. Method 4B5 codes for an MIR surrogate measurement. There is merit in separate use of both water and calcium chloride to measure soil pH.

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pH of 1:5 soil/water suspension (4A1)

This test on milled air-dry sample involves mechanical shaking with deionised water in a closed system for 1 h at a soil/water ratio of 1:5 prior to pH measurement using calibrated electrodes, while stirring the soil/water suspension. The method is suitable for use on all soils, irrespective of whether acidic or alkaline. Values may be lower than expected on recently fertilised soils due to a temporary increase in soil solution ionic strength.
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Total soil nitrogen semi micro Kjeldahl,automated colour finish (7A2)

Method 7A2 is similar to Method 7A1, except that total N in the Kjeldahl digest is quantified by automated colorimetric procedures based on the Berthelot indophenol reaction. Method 7A2a relates to an automated colour, continuous segmented flow analytical finish, while Method 7A2b codes an automated colour finish by flow injection analysis. No significant difference is expected in results due to the choice of colorimetric finish. The test commence with finely-milled air-dry sample, while both methods specify reporting results as %N on an oven-dry (105oC) basis.

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Total carbon - high frequency induction furnace (with prior physical removal of (6B3)

Following quantitative action / pre-treatment to account for or to physically remove (if present) charcoal and to chemically remove carbonate with excess 5% H2SO3 solution on a hot plate in a fume cabinet, the residual, re-dried soil sample is analysed for soil C by a suitable method, preferably Method 6B2b. The method involving carbonate removal and soil C analysis uses finely-milled air-dry sample, with weights varying with expected C concentrations. The method specifies reporting as %C on an oven-dry (105oC) basis.

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Soil organic matter by loss-on-ignition (6G1)

This simple test involves the ignition of finely-milled air-dry sample initially to 105oC and then to 550oC. One hundred times the difference in sample weight in grams between these two temperatures, i.e, [100(Weight105C – Weight550C)] = Loss on ignition550C (LOI550C), which is assumed to approximate % Organic Matter.
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Not Specified or mixed (NS)

The laboratory either did not specify the method used or uses a mix of methods when submitting to the certification body

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Chloride - 1:5 soil/water extract (5A2)

Tests for water-soluble chloride (Cl) on milled air-dry sample are suitable for use on all soils. For method 5A1, Cl‑ in clarified 1:5 soil/water extracts is determined by potentiometric titration with AgNO3 in conjunction with an Ag/AgNO3 electrode array. For method 5A2a, Cl‑ in clarified 1:5 soil/water extracts is determined by an automated, continuous flow colorimetric procedure based on the formation — in the presence of ferric ions and free thiocyanate ions — of highly coloured ferric thiocyanate in proportion to the Cl‑ concentration.

 

Method 5A2b is similar, except it pertains to the use of flow injection analysis (FIA). For 5A1 and 5A2 methods, it is assumed there are no chemical interferences of significance. Moreover, Method 5A2a has proven more precise than method 5A1, particularly at soil concentrations <50 mg Cl/kg. Other analytical finish options involve chemically-suppressed ion chromatography (5A3a), single-column electronically suppressed ion chromatography (5A3b), and direct measurement by ICPAES (Method 5A4). The methodology specifies reporting results on an air-dry basis.

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DE-23

Microwave Digestion - closed system without HF, and final medium HNO3 and/or HCl. ICP-AES finish.

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BB-31

Extraction with water. Spectrophotometric (automated) finish.

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CA-37

Finely divided dry sample.  Dumas combustion.