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Air dry moisture content (2A1)

This method is required to adjust soil chemical results based on air-dry samples to an oven-dry (105oC)
basis. When the air-dry moisture content (M%) is known, the correction from air-dry
to oven-dry is as follows:

 

            Oven-dry result  =   [Air-dry result  x  (100+ M%)]/100

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Nitrate Nitrogen (7C2)

Initially, milled air-dry soil is extracted for 1 h with 2M KCl at a 1:10 soil/solution ratio. For 7C1a to 7C1h methods, mineral-N components are quantified by steam distillations and subsequent titrations. For 7C2 methods, mineral-N fractions in the clarified soil extract are determined by automated colorimetric procedures. Ammonium ions (NH4+) are measured by a modified Berthelot indophenol reaction, while the Griess-Ilosvay reaction is used for NO3-N (and NO2-N). The methods specify reporting results for NH4-N and NO3-N [plus NO2-N if present], respectively, as mg N/kg on an oven-dry (105oC) basis. Specifically, method 7C2a relates to an automated colour, continuous segmented flow analytical finish, while Method 7C2b codes an automated colour finish by flow injection analysis. Little difference is expected in results due to choice of colorimetric finish.

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(9.00E+01)

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CaCl2 extractable B - ICP (12C2)

The soil is extracted with boiling 0.01M Cacl2 solution at a 1:2 soil:solution ratio for 10 mins.  It is then quickly filtered to avoid any re-fixation of the solubilised B.  The extract is then analysed by ICP-AES.

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Electrical conductivity (EC) of 1:5 soil/water extract (3A1)

This test on milled air-dry sample at a soil/water ratio of 1:5 for 1 h is suitable for use on all soils, irrespective of whether acidic or alkaline. It usually underestimates the soluble salt status of soils containing natural or added gypsum, particularly if ³ 1% of gypsum is present. Such soils would have an EC of about 2 dS/m. Soil EC x 0.336 (Method 3B1) approximates percent total soluble salts, while approximate soil ionic strength (Method 3C1) at 0.1 bar (I0.1) can be calculated as follows: I0.1 = [0.0446*EC1:5 – 0.000173], where I0.1 has units of mM, and EC1:5 has units of dS/m @ 25oC.

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Exchangeable Bases - Ammonium Acetate (15D3)

 

Exchangeable bases - 1M ammonium acetate at pH 7.0.

 

This rapid method for exchangeable cations in non-saline acidic through to slightly alkaline soils has no pre-treatment for soluble salts. It should yield similar data to those of method 15A1, except it can overestimate exchangeable Ca in soils containing calcium carbonate.

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DTPA Trace Elements (12A1)

Soils are extracted with 0.005M DTPA, at a 1:2 soil:solution ratio, and shaken for 2 hr at 25oC.  Analytical finish is either ICP-AES or Flame AAS.

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KCl-ext.S (10D1)

Empirical extraction at 40oC in 0.25M KCl, for 3 hours.  Total S in the extract is measured by ICP-AES.

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Ca(H2PO4)2 extractable S (10B3)

Sulfate sulphur is extracted in the absence of activated charcoal from air-dry soil <2 mm particle size, by 0.01M Ca (H2PO4)2 at pH 4.0 using a soil/solution ratio of 1:5 and an extraction time of 17 h at 25 degrees C. This extracted sulphur is then determined in an aliquot of particle-free soil extract by ICP-AES.

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Mehlich3 ICP (18F1)

Analysis of Mehlich 3 extract using inductively-coupled atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES)

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Organic carbon - W & B (6A1)

This measure of soil organic carbon (OCW&B; expressed as %C) usually yields a lower figure than the true total organic carbon value. The method uses finely-milled air-dry sample. It involves wet oxidation by a dichromate-sulphuric acid mixture and relies only on heat of reaction. Soil weight should take account of the expected concentration of OC, and it is expected that allowance will be made for positive soluble Cl‑ interference in soils containing >0.5% Cl. The method specifies reporting on an oven-dry (105oC) basis. Nowadays this method is less preferred than 6B methods.

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Phosphorus buffer index, with Colwell P (PBI+ColP) pooled analytical finishes (9I2A)

This index of soil P sorption embraces adsorption as well as precipitation reactions. In addition, it utilises the Colwell-P test on the same soil sample as a measure of current soil P fertility (PBI+ColP). Equilibrium soil extracts are obtained by shaking milled air-dry soil continuously for 17 h at a ratio of 1:10 (w/v) with a P equilibrating solution initially containing the equivalent of 1000 mg P/kg in 0.01M CaCl2. In method 9I2a, orthophosphate-P in final particulate-free supernatant solutions is analysed by a molybdenum-blue analytical finish, at a preferred absorbance of 882 nm. Methods 9I2b and 9I2c code for analytical finishes based on ICPAES and a vanadate-P colour finish, respectively. PBI+ColP is calculated as {[Ps (mg P/kg) + Colwell-P (mg/kg)] / c (mg P/L)0.41}, where Ps = freshly sorbed P and c = final solution P concentration. The methods specify reporting results on an air-dry basis.
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PBI - Unadjusted (9I4B)

This index of soil P sorption embraces adsorption as well as precipitation reactions. Equilibrated soil extracts are obtained by shaking milled air-dry soil continuously for 17 h at a ratio of 1:10 (w/v) with a P equilibrating solution initially containing the equivalent of 1000 mg P/kg in 0.01M CaCl2. The residual P in the extract is determined by ICP-AES.  In other related methods (9I2a, 9I3a) the PBI value is modified to allow for the soil fertility level.  In this method, there is nosuch adjustment. The methods specify reporting results on an air-dry basis.

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pH of 1:5 soil/water suspension (4A1)

This test on milled air-dry sample involves mechanical shaking with deionised water in a closed system for 1 h at a soil/water ratio of 1:5 prior to pH measurement using calibrated electrodes, while stirring the soil/water suspension. The method is suitable for use on all soils, irrespective of whether acidic or alkaline. Values may be lower than expected on recently fertilised soils due to a temporary increase in soil solution ionic strength.
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Total soil N – Dumas high-temperature combustion (7A5)

This method utilises automated and/or microprocessor controlled instrumentation, which mostly is able to measure at least total C, N and S in the same sample. Dumas-N dry oxidation includes all forms of soil N, without the need for lengthy pre-treatments, although results can occasionally differ from those expected in soils with high levels of fixed ammonium-N (lower results) and when soils are organically rich (high results, due to incomplete combustion resulting in the formation of methane rather than CO2). Typically, dry, finely-ground sample is subjected to high-temperature combustion (e.g. 950–1,250oC) in a stream of purified O2. An aliquot of the gases produced by combustion is carried by helium gas to a thermal conductivity cell for measurement of any N2 generated, a process typically taking 3–5 min. A heated copper catalyst reduces NOx to N2. The method specifies reporting results as %N on an oven-dry (105oC) basis.
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Total carbon - high frequency induction furnace (with prior physical removal of (6B3)

Following quantitative action / pre-treatment to account for or to physically remove (if present) charcoal and to chemically remove carbonate with excess 5% H2SO3 solution on a hot plate in a fume cabinet, the residual, re-dried soil sample is analysed for soil C by a suitable method, preferably Method 6B2b. The method involving carbonate removal and soil C analysis uses finely-milled air-dry sample, with weights varying with expected C concentrations. The method specifies reporting as %C on an oven-dry (105oC) basis.

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Not Specified or mixed (NS)

The laboratory either did not specify the method used or uses a mix of methods when submitting to the certification body

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DE-24

Microwave Digestion - closed system without HF, and final medium HNO3 and/or HCl. ICP-MS finish.

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CA-37

Finely divided dry sample.  Dumas combustion.

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BB-31

Extraction with water. Spectrophotometric (automated) finish.